Monday, March 30, 2009

A good book to read

Linux Administration, a beginners guide(Fifth edition, 2009) is a very good book for those who have skills in Windows and want to learn Linux as well. I am reading the book right now and I enjoy every single page of it. I DO recommend this book ...

Friday, March 27, 2009

GUI differences in Windows and Linux

Taking a cue from the Macintosh design concept, Windows developers integrated the GUI with the core operating system. One simply does not exist without the other. The benefit with this tight coupling of the OS and user interface is consistency in the appearance of the system.
On the other hand, Linux(like UNIX in general) has kept the two elements-user interface and OS- separate. The X Windows system interface is run as a user-level application, which makes it more stable. If the GUI fails Linux core does not go down with it. The process simply crashes and you get a terminal window. The X Window System also differs from the Windows GUI in that it isn't a complete user interface. It only defines how basic objects should be drawn and manipulated on the screen. The most significant ability of X Windows System is that they can operate through network on other workstation's screens.

source : Linux Administration, A beginners guide, 5th edition (2009)

Thursday, March 26, 2009

The Monolithic Kernel and the Micro-Kernel

In operating systems, there are two types of kernels. There is a monolithic kernel that provides all the services the user applications need. There is also a micro kernel that is a small core set of services and other modules that perform other functions.
Linux for the most, part adopts the monolithic kernel architecture; it handles everything dealing with the hardware and system calls. This is while Windows works off a micro-kernel design. The kernel provides a small set of services and then interfaces with other executive services that provide process management, IO management, and other services. It has yet to be proved which methodology is truly the best way.

source : Linux Administration, A beginners guide, 5th edition (2009)

Monday, March 23, 2009

backslash in Mac !!!

Well this is ridiculous but some stuffs are terribly stupid in Mac. If you are wondering about how to write backslash on Norwegian keyboard in Mac(backslash norsk tastatur i Mac), it is :

Alt+Shift+7 = \

Saturday, March 21, 2009

Shahabinary alpha version 0.002


Shahabinary English to Norwegian dictionary :

Shahabinary is a OS free, freeware PC application which is at least runable on Linux & Windows (TESTED). The code is not open source this time (like Shahabinary 0.001) but I will post the source code in near future. Due to some technical difficulties with GUI, the word recognition ability has been disabled but will be functional again in version 0.003. This version enjoys a better GUI and much more comfortable design with significant changes in the code which makes it smaller and easier to compile. The only thing you need to do for running is to unzip the folder and double click on Shahabinary v. 0.0002.jar.

Again I repeat the words and database are not trustable and this is just an exercise in my learning progress. This project the focus is mostly on the technical part and not the dictionary parts of the application.

Click here
to download the latest Shahabinary …

Enjoy …

CMD, how to shutdown/restart windows

If you getting tired of every time have to clicking Start menu, and then click on Turn Off Computer, and then still have to click on Turn Off or Restart or Log Off in order to log off, restart or shut down your computer, and feel that it’s time wasting, you can create a one-click shortcut that allows the user to shutdown or restart Windows, or go into standby or hibernate mode, with just a single click on the shortcut itself. Best of all, the shortcut can be put at any place - desktop, Quick Launch bar, or Start Menu, and can even launch the shutdown or restart process from command line or command prompt.

In order to shutdown or restart the Windows with just one click shortcut or from command prompt or command line, users can use shutdown command line utility/command that comes with Windows 2000 (with the Resource Kit installed) and Windows XP or Windows Vista (native). To access shutdown command, simply go to DOS command prompt by clicking on Start -> All Programs -> Accessories -> Command Prompt or Start -> Run and then type in Cmd to launch a command prompt window.

To create a one-click shortcut to shutdown the Windows computer, right click on your desktop or any folder (or click at File at toolbar), and then select New, and then click on Shortcut. A New Shortcut wizard will ask for location of this item. In the text box, type “shutdown -s -t 01″ (without quotation marks). Click on Next when done. When ask for a name for the shortcut, give any descriptive name you prefer, such as Shutdown. Then click on Finish, and you can now use the shortcut created to shut down PC immediately after click.

If you want to create a shortcut that quick restart the Windows instead of shutting down the computer, follow the above instruction, but “shutdown -s -t 01″, key in “shutdown -r -t 01″ for location of this item. Again, give a proper descriptive name to the shortcut, such as Restart, and the shortcut is ready to be used to restart the Windows right after click.

As in the shutdown command above, -s parameter will shutdown the computer, while -r will shutdown and restart the computer. -t 01 set the timeout or time to lapse in seconds for a shut down or restart to begin. By default, if no -t argument is specified, shutdown command will wait for 30 seconds countdown before shutdown or restart. The best part for shutdown command is that it can abort a system shutdown, by using -a as the option for shutdown, i.e. “shutdown -a”. There are other options or parameters that available, and users can view all of the flags with “shutdown /?” command at command prompt.

The options available for shutdown are:

No arguments : Display this message (same as -?)
-i : Display GUI interface, must be the first option
-l : Log off (cannot be used with -m option)
-s : Shutdown the computer
-r : Shutdown and restart the computer
-a : Abort a system shutdown
-m \\computername : Remote computer to shutdown/restart/abort
-t xx : Set timeout for shutdown to xx seconds
-c “comment” : Shutdown comment (maximum of 127 characters)
-f : Forces running applications to close without warning
-d [u][p]:xx:yy : The reason code for the shutdown

click here for the source

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Commonly Used UNIX Commands

There are a few things you need to remember when entering UNIX commands:

  • UNIX commands are typed at a prompt. Very often the prompt is a percent sign %. Sometimes it is the name of the machine followed by the %. The cursor may be a blinking white square on a black background, a blinking black square on a white background, or a blinking color square on a color background.
  • UNIX commands are case sensitive and are usually lower case. This means that ls and LS are completely different commands. At the end of this section is a chart of some commonly used UNIX commands.
  • Spaces are very important. There is always a space between the command and the file or directory it acts upon. In the following example of a command line, cd is the command and /afs/andrew/course/76/271-Summer/dheagy is the directory.
    Example: cd /afs/andrew/course/76/271-Summer/juser
  • In order for a UNIX command to be executed, you must press Enter at the end of a command line. If all goes well, the prompt and cursor appear on the next line waiting for the next command. It often looks like you haven’t done anything, but unless there is an error message, your command has been executed. If there is a problem, you will generate an error message, such as “Command not found.” If you generate this type of error, you probably typed something incorrectly. Try again.
  • If you type something and you want to get out of it, press Ctrl + C.




Print contents of file in the command window


Change directories


Copy the contents of file into file2


List history of all commands issued at system prompt


List the files and subdirectories in a directory

ls -F

List the difference between files and directories (directories will have a /)

ls -l

List files with status information (list the long way)

ls -lt

List file information in long format, sorted by time with newest files (or newly changed files appearing first

ls -a

List all the files in a directory, including dot files


Make a directory


Move file to file 2


Print the pathname of the current directory


Remove, or delete, files


Remove directory

fs la

List access rights for (for more information on access rights, read File and Directory Protections)


Monday, March 16, 2009

XP Pro logs off immediately after you log in

Got a problem that both in Windows itsself and in Safe Mode you can not login ? It logs off right after entering your username & password, well here is your way out of it :

Problem: Computer Logs off out when you login
Cause: Search Assistant (search bar aside the clock in windows)

3 Steps.

1.- Get into the recovery console (with boot disks, you can get them from microsoft page).

2.- Get the file userinit.exe from another NOT INFECTED computer. (located in windows/system32 folder)

3.- Overwrite the userinit.exe original file (from the infected computer) with the new one (use a cd or disk to transport it) (COMMAND: COPY e:/userinit.exe c:/windows/system32/userinit.exe)

4.- Rename the userinit.exe to wsaupdater.exe

5.- Exit and ENJOY.

Source :

Friday, March 13, 2009

Solving equation of three variables in Matlab

If we have the following equations :


we can solve the equation in Matlab in the following way. Write simply in the command window :

A=[8 -2 5; -2 10 -3; -5 -3 10]; % a 3x3 matrix
b=[10;0;0]%a 3x1 matrix, be careful not to forget the two semicolons they mean break to the next row in matrix

temp=inv(A)*b % temp will be a 3x1 matrix and contains your answer :-)

Thursday, March 12, 2009

Changing the language in Mac

I found one very intresting and powerful tools in Mac and it is that it is possible to change the whole language system without reinstalling the mac. I mean in my case, I had chosen Norwegian by mistake and I wanted to change back to English and it was fantastic that I didn't have to go through the whole reinstallation :-)

I just went into Apple sign from the toolbar, System Preferences, and then International. There I chose English as my language for Order for stored lists. I should mention I have Mac OSX 10.5.5.

iApple ;-)

Just bought an Apple ! Oh my god, I can't do anything with it, have even problems changing my background image ;-)

Tuesday, March 10, 2009


With IMAP, the master copy of your mail is on the server. Though mail is also downloaded to your personal computer and placed into a local copy of your IMAP server folder structure, it is not necessarily a complete copy at any given time. This is very different from POP. In POP, if you see a summary line for a message in your Inbox, the entire message is there on your personal computer, and you don't have to be connected to the email server to see it. But with IMAP, the summary line may be the only part of the message that has been downloaded to your personal computer. When you ask to see the message, it will be downloaded to your personal computer and then displayed to you, and the copy will remain there on your personal computer till you delete the message in your Inbox.

Source :

Lexial structure

Lexial Structure of a programming language is the set of elementary rules that specifies how you write program in the language. It is the lowest level of syntax of a language; specifies how variables should look like, what characters are used for comments, etc ...

I have started to read a little bit about Javascript on the way home in the subway and I thought maybe some people around the world might wonder about this phrase.

Cheers ...

Shahab, Oslo, 7:55 A.M., just got to work ;-)

Thursday, March 05, 2009

Shutdown shell commands for Ubuntu

The shutdown command at Ubuntu servers :

sudo shutdown -P now
you can also use: sudo init 0
Restart command :
sudo reboot